Monday, March 15, 2010

Китайцы купили половину второй нефтедобывающей компании Аргентины и вместе с ней – месторождения

Израиль превратят в Дубаи: объявлен тендер на установку видеокамер по всей стране

В министерстве подчеркивают, что программа не будет противоречить закону о праве на личную жизнь

США и Великобритания могут лишиться рейтингов высшей категории

Международное рейтинговое агентство Moody's Investors Service предупреждает: ...США и Великобритания существенно приблизились к утрате своих кредитных рейтингов высшего уровня "ААА", поскольку выросла стоимость обслуживания их долга...Правительства этих двух стран должны как можно быстрее снизить долговое бремя...это уже не первое предупреждение Moody's...

Чили в руинах после серии землетрясений

14 марта. Нападение на 443-й трассе. Ранены двое израильтян

Emergence of Regional Currencies (English)

On January 1, 1999, the European Union established the Euro as its regional currency. The Euro has grown in prominence over the past several years. However, it is not to be the only regional currency in the world. There are moves and calls for other regional currencies throughout the world.
The Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) was established on May 23, 2008, with the headquarters to be in Ecuador, the South American Parliament to be in Bolivia, and the Bank of the South to be in Venezuela. As the BBC reported, “The leaders of 12 South American nations have formed a regional body aimed at boosting economic and political integration in the region,” and that, “The Unasur members are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.”

There is more below.
Ниже есть продолжение.

The week following the announcement of the Union, it was reported that, “Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva said Monday that South American nations will seek a common currency as part of the region's integration efforts following the creation of the Union of South American Nations.” He was quoted as saying, “We are proceeding so as, in the future, we have a common central bank and a common currency.”

In 2005, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), a regional trade bloc among Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), announced the goal of creating a single common currency by 2010...

In June of 2008, it was reported that, “Gulf Arab central bankers agreed to create the nucleus of a joint central bank next year in a major step forward for monetary union but signaled that a new common currency would not be in circulation by an agreed 2010 target.” In 2002, it was announced that the “Gulf states say they are seeking advice from the European Central Bank on their monetary union programme.” In February of 2008, Oman announced that it would not be joining the monetary union. In November of 2008, it was announced that the “Final monetary union draft says Gulf central bank will be independent from governments of member states.”

In March of 2009, it was reported that, “The GCC should not rush into forming a single currency as member states need to work out the framework for a regional central bank, Saudi Arabia's Central Bank Governor Muhammad Al Jasser.” Jasser was further quoted as saying, “It took the European Union 45 years to put together a single currency. We should not rush.” In 2008, with the global financial crisis, new problems were posed for the GCC initiative, as “Pressure mounted last year on the GCC members to drop their currency pegs as inflation accelerated above 10 per cent in five of the six countries. All of the member states except Kuwait peg their currencies to the dollar and tend to follow the US Federal Reserve when setting interest rates.”

In 1997, the Brookings Institution, a prominent American think tank, discussed the possibilities of an East Asian Monetary Union, stating that, “the question for the 21st century is whether analogous monetary blocs will form in East Asia (and, for that matter, in the Western Hemisphere). With the dollar, the yen, and the single European currency floating against one another, other small open economies will be tempted to link up to one of the three.” However, “the linkage will be possible only if accompanied by radical changes in institutional arrangements like those contemplated by the European Union. The spread of capital mobility and political democratization will make it prohibitively difficult to peg exchange rates unilaterally. Pegging will require international cooperation, and effective cooperation will require measures akin to monetary unification.”
On May 6, 2005, the website of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) announced that, “China, Japan, South Korea and the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have agreed to expand their network of bilateral currency swaps into what could become a virtual Asian Monetary Fund,” and that, “[f]inance officials of the 13 nations, who met in the sidelines of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) annual conference in Istanbul, appeared determined to turn their various bilateral agreements into some sort of multilateral accord, although none of the officials would directly call it an Asian Monetary Fund.”
Currently, Africa has several different monetary union initiatives, as well as some existing monetary unions within the continent. One initiative is the “monetary union project of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS),” which is a “regional group of 15 countries in West Africa.” Among the members are those of an already-existing monetary union in the region, the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU). The ECOWAS consists of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Cape Verde, Liberia, Ghana, Gambia, and Nigeria.

The African Union was founded in 2002, and is an intergovernmental organization consisting of 53 African states. In 2003, the Brookings Institution produced a paper on African economic integration. In it, the authors started by stating that, “Africa, like other regions of the world, is fixing its sights on creating a common currency. Already, there are projects for regional monetary unions, and the bidding process for an eventual African central bank is about to begin.” It states that, “A common currency was also an objective of the Organization for African Unity and the African Economic Community, the predecessors of the AU,” and further, that, “The 1991 Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community outlines six stages for achieving a single monetary zone for Africa that were set to be completed by approximately 2028. In the early stages, regional cooperation and integration within Africa would be strengthened, and this could involve regional monetary unions. The final stage involves the establishment of the African Central Bank (ACB) and creation of a single African currency and an African Economic and Monetary Union.”

The paper further states that the African Central Bank (ACB) “would not be created until around 2020, [but] the bidding process for its location is likely to begin soon,” however, “there are plans for creating various regional monetary unions, which would presumably form building blocks for the single African central bank and currency.”

In August of 2008, “Governors of African Central Banks convened in Kigali Serena Hotel to discuss issues concerning the creation of three African Union (AU) financial institutions,” following “the AU resolution to form the African Monetary Fund (AMF), African Central Bank (ACB) and the African Investment Bank (AIB).” The central bank governors “agreed that when established, the ACB would solely issue and manage Africa's single currency and monetary authority of the continent's economy.”

On March 2, 2009, it was reported that, “The African Union will sign a memorandum of understanding this month with Nigeria on the establishment of a continental central bank,” and that, “The institution will be based in the Nigerian capital, Abuja, African Union Commissioner for Economic Affairs Maxwell Mkwezalamba told reporters.” Further, “As an intermediate step to the creation of the bank, the pan- African body will establish an African Monetary Institute within the next three years, he said at a meeting of African economists in the city,” and he was quoted as saying, “We have agreed to work with the Association of African Central Bank Governors to set up a joint technical committee to look into the preparation of a joint strategy.”

In 1999, the Fraser Institute, a prominent and highly influential Canadian think tank, published a report written by Economics professor and former MP, Herbert Grubel, called, The Case for the Amero: The Economics and Politics of a North American Monetary Union. He wrote that, “The plan for a North American Monetary Union presented in this study is designed to include Canada, the United States, and Mexcio,” and a “North American Central Bank, like the European Central Bank, will have a constitution making it responsible only for the maintenance of price stability and not for full employment...”

...Former Mexican President Vicente Fox, while appearing on Larry King Live in 2007, was asked a question regarding the possibility of a common currency for Latin America, to which he responded by saying, “Long term, very long term. What we propose together, President Bush and myself, it's ALCA, which is a trade union for all of the Americas. And everything was running fluently until Hugo Chavez came. He decided to isolate himself. He decided to combat the idea and destroy the idea.” Larry King then asked, “It's going to be like the euro dollar, you mean?” to which Fox responded, “Well, that would be long, long term. I think the processes to go, first step into is trading agreement. And then further on, a new vision, like we are trying to do with NAFTA.”

...In January of 2009, an online publication of the Wall Street Journal, called Market Watch, discussed the possibility of hyperinflation of the United States dollar, and then stated, regarding the possibility of an amero, “On its face, while difficult to imagine, it makes intuitive sense. The ability to combine Canadian natural resources, American ingenuity and cheap Mexican labor would allow North America to compete better on a global stage.” The author further states that, “If forward policy attempts to induce more debt rather than allowing savings and obligations to align, we must respect the potential for a system shock. We may need to let a two-tier currency gain traction if the dollar meaningfully debases from current levels,” and that, “If this dynamic plays out -- and I've got no insight that it will -- the global balance of powers would fragment into four primary regions: North America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. In such a scenario, ramifications would manifest through social unrest and geopolitical conflict.”
Benn Steil, The End of National Currency. Foreign Affairs: Vol. 86, Issue 3, May/June 2007: pages 83-96

Jonathan Tirone, ECB's Nowotny Sees Global `Tri-Polar' Currency System Evolving. Bloomberg: October 19, 2008:

BBC, South America nations found union. BBC News: May 23, 2008:

CNews, South American nations to seek common currency. China View: May 26, 2008:

AME Info, GCC: Full steam ahead to monetary union. September 19, 2005:

John Irish, GCC Agrees on Monetary Union but Signals Delay in Common Currency. Reuters: June 10, 2008:§ion=0&article=110727&d=10&m=6&y=2008

Forbes, TIMELINE-Gulf single currency deadline delayed beyond 2010. Forbes: March 23, 2009:

Agencies, 'GCC need not rush to form single currency'. Business 24/7: March 26, 2009:

Barry Eichengreen, International Monetary Arrangements: Is There a Monetary Union in Asia's Future? The Brookings Institution: Spring 1997:, After European now Asian Monetary Union? Asia Times Online: September 8, 2001:

ASEAN, China, Japan, SKorea, ASEAN Makes Moves for Asian Monetary Fund. Association of Southeast Asian Nations: May 6, 2005:

Reuven Glick, Does Europe's Path to Monetary Union Provide Lessons for East Asia? Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco: August 12, 2005:

AFP, Asian Monetary Fund may be needed to deal with future shocks. Channel News Asia: July 2, 2007:

AFX News Limited, East Asia monetary union 'feasible' but political will lacking – ADB. Forbes: September 19, 2007:

Lin Li, ASEAN discusses financial, monetary integration. China View: April 2, 2008:

Paul De Grauwe, Economics of Monetary Union. Oxford University Press, 2007: pages 109-110

Heather Milkiewicz and Paul R. Masson, Africa's Economic Morass—Will a Common Currency Help? The Brookings Institution: July 2003:

John Gahamanyi, Rwanda: African Central Bank Governors Discuss AU Financial Institutions. The New Times: August 23, 2008:

Eric Ombok, African Union, Nigeria Plan Accord on Central Bank. Bloomberg: March 2, 2009:

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, AFRICA IN THE QUEST FOR A COMMON CURRENCY. Republic of Kenya: March 2009:

Herbert Grubel, The Case for the Amero. The Fraser Institute: September 1, 1999: Page 4:

Herbert Grubel, The Case for the Amero. The Fraser Institute: September 1, 1999: Page 17:

Thomas Courchene and Richard Harris, From Fixing to Monetary Union: Options for North American Currency Integration. C.D. Howe Institute, June 1999: Page 22:

Thomas Courchene and Richard Harris, From Fixing to Monetary Union: Options for North American Currency Integration. C.D. Howe Institute, June 1999: Page 23:

Barrie McKenna, Dodge Says Single Currency ‘Possible’. The Globe and Mail: May 21, 2007

Consider a Continental Currency, Jarislowsky Says. The Globe and Mail: November 23: 2007:

CNN, CNN Larry King Live. Transcripts: October 8, 2007:

Herbert Grubel, Fix the Loonie. The Financial Post: January 18, 2008:

Todd Harrison, How realistic is a North American currency? Market Watch: January 28, 2009:{D10536AF-F929-4AF9-AD10-250B4057A907}

Get ready for the phoenix. The Economist: Vol. 306: January 9, 1988: pages 9-10

Наша левантийская ментальность

Публикую с разрешения автора

Я балдею. Ну никак не могу привыкнуть. Ну никак.
Никто никуда не торопится. Всем все по барабану.

Зубная пооиклиника.
Очень хорошие врачи. Замечательные.
Но в остальном...

Явление первое. Визит к врачу.
Занимаю очередь на типуль. Занимаю заранее, чтобы выбрать удобное время.
Планирую свой визит и расписываю свои дела , договариваясь с людбми исходя из того, что с 5 до 6 я занят.
Что будет дальше - знаю заранее, сценарий постоянный.
За день до визита.
Звонок в 10 утра из канцелярии поликлиники.
- Господин , напоминаем - завтра в 5 вечера Ваш визит к врачу.
- Хорошо, помню, спасибо, дор завтра.
Звонок в 1 дня.
- Господин , в 5 часов не получится, врач занята.
- А? Что? Нееее у меня все расписано.
- Ну господин, войдите в наше положение, приходите в 8 вечера или в 3 часа.
- Не, не могу.
- Нууу пожалуйстаааа.
- Нет, не могу. Приду в свое время.
Звонок в 4 часа.
- Господин, ну пааажалуйста,
- Нет, не могу. Приду в завтра пять.

В конце концов мне такое надоело - повторяется каждый раз.
- Почему Вы все время переносите?
- Потому, что люди отказываются от визита. Запланировано, а они отказываются, а врач получает за типули.
Все сдвигаем и перелопачиваем.
- Так делайте как в кино - люди покупают билеты , а придут или нет - их проблема. Почему врач и другие пациенты должны страдать от того, что кто-то передумал приходить?
- Неее, мы так не могем.

Ну не принятл в Израиле нести ответственность за безалабенность.

Явление второе. Лаборатория.
Берет врач мерку на кетер (т.е. зуб)
Следующий визит запланирован через неделю.
Врач уверяет - через неделю кетер будет готов.
Через неделю звонок - кетер не готов, Ваша очередь аннулируется.
- А кто ответит, что кетер не готов?
- Никто. Лаборатория не готова. Ну они позвонили, что не сделают вовремя.
Назавтра кетер снова не готов, послезавтра тоже...
- Скажите, почемук лаборатория не несет ответственность, что вовремя не сделали? Захотели - сделали,, ну а нет - так нет. Почему страдать должен я , а не они? Почему мне не платят неустойку? Почему вы не меняете лабораторию на серьезную?
Понимаете, они вовремя не сделали. Когда сделают - мы вам позвоним.

И так далее по кругу. Все мои угрозы уйти от них в другую поликоинику наталкиваются на ту же тупую фразу, что ну что делать, лаборатория не сделала,
У поликоиники нет даже мысли, что лаборатория должна отвечать за срок исполнения.

И это частный сектор...
Ну иначе жизни они не понимают...