Friday, June 20, 2014

The Washington Post: Подъем нового антисемитизма во Франции (Russian, English)

Французский комик африканского происхождения Дьедонне Мбала Мбала, которого обвиняют в антисемитских шутках, является "приметой времени"... В Европе, и особенно во Франции, наблюдается резкий рост враждебности к евреям.

Ниже есть продолжение.

С точки зрения лидеров еврейской диаспоры Франции (самой крупной в Европе), Дьедонне - это "симптом более масштабной проблемы". Они говорят о "недавнем фундаментальном повороте", подъеме "нового антисемитизма", в основе которого, по их мнению, лежат четыре фактора: "классический поиск козла отпущения на фоне экономических трудностей, рост могущества крайне правых националистов, ухудшение отношений между темнокожими европейцами и евреями, а также, что немаловажно, нарастание трений с растущим мусульманским населением Европы", пишет автор статьи.

За первые три месяца текущего года во Франции зафиксирован 40-процентный скачок насилия на почве антисемитизма по сравнению с аналогичным периодом прошлого года. По данным нью-йоркской организации "Лига против клеветы", эта страна лидирует в Европе по численности людей, открыто разделяющих антисемитские взгляды. Во Франции таких 37%, в Германии - 27%, в Италии - 20%, в Великобритании - 8%. В 2013 году показатели миграции из Франции в Израиль в годовом исчислении возросли на 64%. Борцы с антисемитизмом отмечают, что это явление становится все более социально приемлемым, заключает Энтони Файола.

...Dieudonné, Jewish leaders say, is a symptom of a larger problem. Here and across the region, they are talking of the rise of a “new anti-Semitism” based on the convergence of four main factors. They cite classic scapegoating amid hard economic times, the growing strength of far-right nationalists, a deteriorating relationship between black Europeans and Jews, and, importantly, increasing tensions with Europe’s surging Muslim population.

In Western Europe, no nation has seen the climate for Jews deteriorate more than France.

Anti-Semitism has ebbed and flowed both here and throughout the region since the end of World War II, with outbreaks of violence and international terrorism — particularly in the 1980s and early 2000s — often linked to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. But Jewish leaders here are now warning of a recent and fundamental shift tied to a spurt of homegrown anti-Semitism.

Earlier this month, authorities arrested Mehdi Nemmouche, a 29-year-old French national, and charged him with the May killings of four people inside a Jewish museum in Brussels. Nemmouche allegedly launched his attack after a tour of duty with rebels in Syria, prompting a wave of fear of additional violence to come here as more of the hundreds of French nationals fighting there make their way home.

In a country that is home to the largest Jewish community in Europe, the first three months of the year saw reported acts of anti-Semitic violence in France skyrocket to 140 incidents, a 40 percent increase from the same period last year. This month, two young Jewish men were jumped and severely beaten on their way to synagogue in an eastern suburb of Paris.

Near the city’s Montmartre district, home to the Moulin Rouge and the Sacre-Coeur basilica, a white woman verbally accosted a Jewish mother before rattling the carriage of her six-month-old child and shouting “dirty Jewess . . . you Jews have too many children,” according to a report filed by France’s National Bureau for Vigilance Against Anti-Semitism. Meanwhile, not far from the rolling vineyards of Bordeaux, Stars of David were recently spray painted on the homes of Jews.

A recent global survey by the New York-based Anti-Defamation League suggested that France now has the highest percentage in Western Europe — 37 percent — of people openly harboring anti-Semitic views. That compares to 8 percent in Britain, 20 percent in Italy and 27 percent in Germany. Jewish leaders chalk that up in part to growing radicalization of youths in France’s Muslim population — the largest in Europe — as well as outrage in the general public and French media over Israeli policy toward the Palestinians.

But it is also far more complex.

, Jewish activists fear, is becoming more socially acceptable
“I walked into my kosher sandwich shop the other day and the owner asked me, ‘Is it time to leave? Are we Nazi Germany yet?’ ” said Shimon Samuels, the Paris-based international director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center. “We’ve got the National Front in first place. We’ve got Dieudonné, spreading his hate. So I told him, ‘Well, do you really want to be the last to go?’ ”

Indeed, French migration to Israel in 2013 jumped to 3,200 people, up 64 percent from 2012. A huge uptick in departures already this year has Jewish leaders here predicting that at least 5,000 French Jews will leave in 2014...

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